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oracle导出数据到文本、从文本导入数据

来源:中国IT实验室 作者:佚名 发表于:2013-07-09 13:28  点击:
oracle导出数据到文本、从文本导入数据 经常有需求向表中导入大量的数据,使用insert不靠谱,太慢 oracle提供了sqlldr的工具 也有时需要讲数据导入到文本,oracle的spool可以轻松实现 方便的实现oracle导出数据到txt、txt导入数据到oracle 一、导出数据到txt
 oracle导出数据到文本、从文本导入数据  经常有需求向表中导入大量的数据,使用insert不靠谱,太慢
  oracle提供了sqlldr的工具
  也有时需要讲数据导入到文本,oracle的spool可以轻松实现
  方便的实现oracle导出数据到txt、txt导入数据到oracle
  一、导出数据到txt
  这里用all_objects表做测试
  SQL> desc all_objects;
  Name Null? Type
  ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
  OWNER NOT NULL VARCHAR2(30)
  OBJECT_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(30)
  SUBOBJECT_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
  OBJECT_ID NOT NULL NUMBER
  DATA_OBJECT_ID NUMBER
  OBJECT_TYPE VARCHAR2(19)
  CREATED NOT NULL DATE
  LAST_DDL_TIME NOT NULL DATE
  TIMESTAMP VARCHAR2(19)
  STATUS VARCHAR2(7)
  TEMPORARY VARCHAR2(1)
  GENERATED VARCHAR2(1)
  SECONDARY VARCHAR2(1)
  拿object_id,object_name做导出、导入测试
  这里需要一些设置满足数据导出的样式
  vi exp_table.sql
  set line 1000 --设置行的长度
  set pagesize 0 --输出不换页
  set feedback off --默认的当一条sql发出的时候,oracle会给一个反馈,比如说创建表的时候,如果成功命令行会返回类似:Table created的反馈,off后不显示反馈
  set heading off --不显示表头信息
  set trimspool on --如果trimspool设置为on,将移除spool文件中的尾部空
  set trims on --去掉空字符
  set echo off;     --显示start启动的脚本中的每个sql命令,缺省为on
  set colsep '|' --设置分隔符
  set termout off --不在屏幕上显示结果
  spool db1.txt --记录数据到db1.txt
  select object_id,object_name from all_objects; --导出数据语句
  spool off --收集完毕
  exit
  一切就绪后导出数据
  [oracle@centos5 ~]$ sqlplus test/test @exp_table.sql
  SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Thu Jun 13 16:35:14 2013
  Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.
  Connected to:
  Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
  With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
  Disconnected from Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
  With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
  [oracle@centos5 ~]$ sed -i 's/ //g' db1.txt --可选,去除每行开头部分的空格
  [oracle@centos5 ~]$ more db1.txt 20|ICOL$
  44|I_USER1
  28|CON$
  15|UNDO$
  29|C_COBJ#
  3|I_OBJ#
  25|PROXY_ROLE_DATA$
  导出后检查数据的记录数是否正确
  [oracle@centos5 ~]$ cat db1.txt |wc -l
  49988
  [oracle@centos5 ~]$ sqlplus test/test
  SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Thu Jun 13 16:36:21 2013
  Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.
  Connected to:
  Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
  With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
  SQL> select count(*) from all_objects;
  COUNT(*)
  ----------
  49988 --数据正确
  二、从txt导入数据到oracle
  sqlldr是通过一个control文件设定后,从文本导入数据
  建立一张测试表
  SQL> create table tb_sqlldr (id number,name varchar2(50));
  Table created.
  建立一个control文件
  vi tb_sqlldr.ctl
  load data
  infile 'db1.txt' --数据来源文本
  append into table tb_sqlldr --数据导入到表tb_sqldr中,导入方式为追加,如果想覆盖
  fields terminated by "|" --4、字段终止于X'09',是一个制表符(tab)
  (id,name) --定义对应的字段名称,注意顺序
  导入数据分成四种模式,可以根据需求选择:
  APPEND // 原先的表有数据 就加在后面
  INSERT // 装载空表 如果原先的表有数据 sqlloader会停止 默认值
  REPLACE // 原先的表有数据 原先的数据会全部删除
  TRUNCATE // 指定的内容和replace的相同 会用truncate语句删除现存数据
  执行导入操作
  sqlldr userid=test/test control=tb_sqlldr.ctl
  差不多5w的数据短短2s解决
  执行导入后验证数据
  SQL> select count(*) from tb_sqlldr;
  COUNT(*)
  ----------
  49988
  导入成功
  再执行一次导入操作,由于设置为追加
  SQL> select count(*) from tb_sqlldr;
  COUNT(*)
  ----------
  99976
  记录翻倍
  sqlldr还有很多参数供选择,比如log、bad这些,查看帮助即可
  [oracle@centos5 ~]$ sqlldr
  SQL*Loader: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Thu Jun 13 17:07:26 2013
  Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.
  Usage: SQLLDR keyword=value [,keyword=value,...]
  Valid Keywords:
  userid -- ORACLE username/password
  control -- control file name
  log -- log file name
  bad -- bad file name
  data -- data file name
  discard -- discard file name
  discardmax -- number of discards to allow (Default all)
  skip -- number of logical records to skip (Default 0)
  load -- number of logical records to load (Default all)
  errors -- number of errors to allow (Default 50)
  rows -- number of rows in conventional path bind array or between direct path data saves
  (Default: Conventional path 64, Direct path all)
  bindsize -- size of conventional path bind array in bytes (Default 256000)
  silent -- suppress messages during run (header,feedback,errors,discards,partitions)
  direct -- use direct path (Default FALSE)
  parfile -- parameter file: name of file that contains parameter specifications
  parallel -- do parallel load (Default FALSE)
  file -- file to allocate extents from
  skip_unusable_indexes -- disallow/allow unusable indexes or index partitions (Default FALSE)
  skip_index_maintenance -- do not maintain indexes, mark affected indexes as unusable (Default FALSE)
  commit_discontinued -- commit loaded rows when load is discontinued (Default FALSE)
  readsize -- size of read buffer (Default 1048576)
  external_table -- use external table for load; NOT_USED, GENERATE_ONLY, EXECUTE (Default NOT_USED)
  columnarrayrows -- number of rows for direct path column array (Default 5000)
  streamsize -- size of direct path stream buffer in bytes (Default 256000)
  multithreading -- use multithreading in direct path
  resumable -- enable or disable resumable for current session (Default FALSE)
  resumable_name -- text string to help identify resumable statement
  resumable_timeout -- wait time (in seconds) for RESUMABLE (Default 7200)
  date_cache -- size (in entries) of date conversion cache (Default 1000)
  PLEASE NOTE: Command-line parameters may be specified either by
  position or by keywords. An example of the former case is 'sqlldr
  scott/tiger foo'; an example of the latter is 'sqlldr control=foo
  userid=scott/tiger'. One may specify parameters by position before
  but not after parameters specified by keywords. For example,
  'sqlldr scott/tiger control=foo logfile=log' is allowed, but
  'sqlldr scott/tiger control=foo log' is not, even though the
  position of the parameter 'log' is correct.

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